Too, Either, So, Neither

TOO and EITHER

Look at the examples:
1. I like reading and she does, too.
2. He will come and we will, too.
3. I don’t like reading and she doesn’t, either.
4. He won’t come and we won’t, either.

From the examples above, we can see clearly that we use TOO for POSITIVE sentences while EITHER for NEGATIVE sentences to indicate SIMILARITY. The auxiliary before TOO and EITHER can be determined from the first auxiliary following the first subject (of course, we must also pay attention to the subject after the conjunction AND), those are “I” and “HE”.

Auxiliaries from examples number 1 and 3 are DO (derived from the verb 1 ‘LIKE’) and DON’T, thus the auxiliaries are DOES and DOESN’T (because the subject after the conjunction AND is SHE).

Auxiliaries from examples number 2 and 4 are WILL and WON’T, and since the auxiliaries are MODALS, you just simply put the same MODALS as the first one.

SO and NEITHER

Now, look at these examples:
1. I like reading and so does she.
2. He will come and so will we.
3. I don’t like reading and neither does she.
4. He won’t come and neither will we.

The use of SO and NEITHER is the same as TOO and EITHER, which is to indicate SIMILARITY. We use SO for positive sentences and NEITHER for negative sentences. The difference is the forms; when we use SO and NEITHER, we put the words SO and NEITHER after the conjunction AND. And the same as previous one, you can determine the auxiliary after SO and NEITHER from the first auxiliary following the first subject. HOWEVER!!! You CANNOT write negative form of auxiliary after the word NEITHER, since NEITHER has already carried a negative meaning.

Correlative Conjunctions

Most EFL learners know CONJUNCTIONS are only AND, BUT, BECAUSE, UNLESS, BESIDES, SO, etc. Rarely do they know about CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS, whereas these conjunctions often appear in the TOEFL test.

CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS are:
1. Not only ….. but also …..
2. Both      ….. and       …..
3. Either     ….. or         …..
4. Neither   ….. nor       …..
5. Not        ….. but       …..

It needs concerning that we MUST put the same word after each conjunction. For instance, if we put NOUN after BOTH, we also put NOUN after AND.

1. I can NOT ONLY dance, BUT ALSO sing. (The word dance and sing are VERBS)
2. Tom wants BOTH to host them AND to entertain them. (The word to host and to 
    entertain are TO INFINITIVE)
3. She is EITHER pretty OR nice. (The word pretty and nice are ADJECTIVES)
4. I want NEITHER apples NOR oranges. (The word apples and oranges are NOUNS)
   NOTE: NEITHER and NOR already have NEGATIVE meaning, so the sentence has to be in   
   POSITIVE form.
5. They’re NOT mine, BUT hers. (The word mine and hers are POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS)

I hope what I write can be useful for those EFL learners, since these conjunctions do appear a lot in the TOEFL test.

Causative

Look at the illustration below.

From the illustration, we can write a story line as following:
1. Bob’s computer is broken.
2. He takes it to the repairman.
3. He has the repairman fix his computer OR He has his computer fixed. 

From the story line above, we can see that Bob DOES NOT fix his computer by himself. He ASKS SOMEONE ELSE to do it. This kind of sentence is called CAUSATIVE.

CAUSATIVE is a sentence indicates someone asks, tells, or makes someone else to do something for him/her.

There are TWO kinds of CAUSATIVE: ACTIVE and PASSIVE.

ACTIVE CAUSATIVE
From the example he has the repairman fix his computer, we can draw a formula of ACTIVE CAUSATIVE: 

S + has/have/had/let/make/made + O (active) + V1 + O (passive)

The Object (active) is usually the person whom the subject tells to do something for him/her, while the Object (passive) is something that the subject tells someone else to do.

From the example he has the repairman fix his computer, the Object (active) is the repairman, while the Object (passive) is his computer.

NOTE: We can also use get/got for ACTIVE CAUSATIVE, but we MUST ADD to infinitive AFTER THE VERB get/got. E.g. He gets the repairman to fix his computer.

PASSIVE CAUSATIVE
From the example he has his computer fixed, we can draw a formula of PASSIVE CAUSATIVE:

S + has/have/had/get/got + O (passive) + V3
 
The Object (passive) is something that the subject wants someone else to do for him/her. In PASSIVE CAUSATIVE, we DO NOT USE the Object (active), but we use V3 or PAST PARTICIPLE in exchange.
 
So, that’s a simple explanation about CAUSATIVE I can tell you. If I’m mistaken, please do correct it. Thank you.

PS: Sorry for the terrible drawing, I’m not a drawer. Not to mention, I drew it using the program paint, so it got terrible 😀

Subjunctive

Once upon a time :D, a student just called me and asked me about a sentence: “I advised that she comes on time”. He was confused on how to tell the mistake from the sentence. I told him it was the word ‘comes’. It should be ‘come’. The sentence is SUBJUNCTIVE. For more information, I’m going to explain it by quoting Swan’s SUBJUNCTIVE theory (1996: 566).
 
FORMS AND MEANINGS
 
The subjunctive is a special kind of PRESENT TENSE which HAS NO -s in the third person singular. It’s sometimes used in that-clauses in a FORMAL STYLE, especially in AMERICAN ENGLISH, after words which express the idea that something is important or desirable (e.g. suggest, recommend, ask, insist, vital, essential, important, advise). The same form are used in both present and past sentences.
 
Example:
1. It is essential that every child HAVE the same educational opportunities.
2. We felt that it was important that James WRITE to uncle Arthur as soon as possible.
3. We advise that the company INVEST in new equipment.
4. We recommended that she BE elected. (not to be nor is)
 
FIXED PHRASES
 
Subjunctive are also used in certain fixed phrases, such as:
1. God SAVE the King/Queen!
2. God BLESS you.
3. Long LIVE the King!
4. Heaven FORBID.
5. He’s a sort of adopted uncle, as it WERE. (= … in a way)
6. BE that as it may, …. (= Whether that is true or not, ….)
7. If we have to pay $2,000, then so BE it. (= We can’t do anything to change it)
 
EXCEPTIONS (OTHER STRUCTURES)!!
 
In British English, however, the form of subjunctive is a bit different. In that-clauses, British people usually prefer SHOULD+INFINITIVE or ordinary PRESENT and PAST tenses.
 
Example:
1. He suggests that she SHOULD GO to the party.
2. We advise that he GETS a map.
3. They recommended that she CAME to class.
 
So, that’s all the explanation about subjunctive. If you have additional explanations, please do share. And if I’m mistaken, please do correct. Thank you.

Nouns

What is a NOUN? According to Concise Oxford English Dictionary, a NOUN is a word used to identify any of class of people, places, or things (common noun)*, or to name a particular one of these (proper noun)**.
* Common nouns such as dog, chair, road, etc.
** Proper nouns such as John, Marie, Apple Inc., STBA Yapari-ABA Bandung, Indonesia, etc.

THE FUNCTIONS OF NOUNS


To know more about NOUNS, watch this video.

And to know what NOUNS do, watch this.

COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS

NOUNS are divided into two categories: those which are COUNTABLE and those which are UNCOUNTABLE. To understand more about COUNTABLE and UNCOUNTABLE nouns, watch this video.

SINGULAR AND PLURAL NOUNS

COUNTABLE nouns have two forms: SINGULAR and PLURAL. To make a singular noun plural, you don’t just simply add -s ending. There are some rules and exceptions in making singular nouns plural. Read here for the explanation.

So, I hope the explanation about the NOUNS, one of the parts of speech, will help you understand more about them. Please comment if you have anything to say. Thank you and cheerio!